Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) containing hydrogen molecules and Pt nanoparticles is expected as a new antioxidant. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay revealed that ERW had an inhibitory effect on the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). In addition, ERW significantly suppressed LDL oxidation in the medium cultured J.774.A1 macrophage like cells. ERW inhibited Cu2+ ion-catalyzed oxidation of LDL ex vivo. ERW lowered lipid peroxide level in blood red cells and plasma triglyceride in rats fed a basal diet containing 2% cholesterol. These results suggest that ERW has anti-LDL oxidation and anti-hyperlipidemia effects.
Hydrogen (H(2)) acts as a therapeutic antioxidant. However, there are few reports on H(2) function in other capacities in diabetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of H(2) in glucose transport by studying cultured mouse C2C12 cells and human hepatoma Hep-G2 cells in vitro, in addition to three types of diabetic mice [Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice, high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic mice, and genetically diabetic db/db mice] in vivo. The results show that H(2) promoted 2-[(14)C]-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) uptake into C2C12 cells via the translocation of glucose transporter Glut4 through activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C (PKC), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), although it did not stimulate the translocation of Glut2 in Hep G2 cells. H(2) significantly increased skeletal muscle membrane Glut4 expression and markedly improved glycemic control in STZ-induced type 1 diabetic mice after chronic intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral (p.o.) administration. However, long-term p.o. administration of H(2) had least effect on the obese and non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes mouse models. Our study demonstrates that H(2) exerts metabolic effects similar to those of insulin and may be a novel therapeutic alternative to insulin in type 1 diabetes mellitus that can be administered orally.